Effects of Alcohol on Glucagon Levels, Weight Gain, and Metabolism

Ever wondered how that evening glass of wine or a couple of beers affect your body beyond a buzz? We’re diving deep into the science to explore how alcohol impacts not just your brain, but your hormones, weight, and metabolism too.


We often think of alcohol in terms of its social or psychological effects, but what happens inside our bodies is a whole other story. This article pulls insights from two important scientific studies to help you understand what’s going on at the molecular level when you drink alcohol. Think of your body as a finely tuned engine — every component has a role, and alcohol can be like that cheeky gremlin throwing a wrench in the gears.

What’s the Deal with Glucagon?

Glucagon is a hormone, much like insulin, that helps regulate sugar levels in your blood. Imagine glucagon as the security guard that opens the energy storage vaults when sugar levels run low. Alcohol can suppress glucagon release, essentially confusing the guard and potentially causing low blood sugar issues. Over time, this suppression can add to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

A Closer Look at Alcohol and Food: Yeomans et al. (2003)

Yeomans and his team looked at how having a drink before a meal affects your eating habits. Imagine alcohol as the friend who says, “Go ahead, have another slice of cake!” According to the study, having alcohol before a meal makes people eat more in the short term. What’s more, our body doesn’t say, “Hey, you’ve got extra calories from that beer; maybe skip dessert.” This is troubling because alcohol itself packs calories, plus it encourages you to eat more, leading to weight gain.

Alcohol also messes with fat-burning and appetite hormones like leptin. Leptin usually tells your brain, “Okay, we’re full, stop eating!” But alcohol can essentially put earplugs in leptin’s ears, making you more likely to overeat.

Macronutrients, Alcohol, and You: Raben et al. (2003)

Raben and his colleagues took it a step further by comparing meals rich in protein, fat, carbohydrates, or alcohol. Surprisingly, alcohol burns off quicker (think of it like jet fuel), increasing short-term energy use. However, it acts like a roadblock for fat oxidation, meaning it stops your body from burning fat for energy. So while alcohol might give you a quick burst of energy, it’s also storing more fat.

Interestingly, the study found that regardless of what your meal is rich in, your feeling of fullness doesn’t change. So, contrary to some beliefs, a protein-rich or fat-rich meal doesn’t necessarily make you feel fuller than a carb-rich one.

What Does This Mean for You?

These findings matter because they tell us that alcohol complicates your body’s internal balance. For those who are trying to manage their weight or are at risk of conditions like type 2 diabetes, this information is crucial. Think of your body as a finely calibrated machine; alcohol is like pouring sand into the gears.


Alcohol does more than just lift spirits; it also lifts your appetite and messes with important hormones like glucagon and leptin. These disruptions can result in weight gain and metabolic imbalances, warning us to be cautious about how much and how often we drink.


1. Yeomans, M. R., Caton, S., & Hetherington, M. M. (2003). Alcohol and food intake. PMID:
14557794, DOI: 10.1097/00075197–200311000–00006

2. Raben, A., Agerholm-Larsen, L., Flint, A., Holst, J. J., & Astrup, A. (2003). Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. PMID: 12499328, DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/77.1.91

Note: While this article is meant to educate, it doesn’t replace professional medical advice. Always consult with a healthcare provider for any medical concerns.


You may also like

Leave a Reply